Discoveries made by Pakistani Scientists

Technology has become an integral part of our lives, and technology comes into existence through discovery, experiments, and inventions. In addition to other countries, Pakistan also has its contributions as well. Here are some inventions made by Pakistani scientists that the world has appreciated and is currently using in the field of biology.

1-First CAN free fertilizer:

small particles of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate
small particles of Calcium Ammonium Nitrate

In 2013, a Pakistani firm the Fatima group, a fertilizer-making industry, made the first-ever fertilizer free of calcium ammonium nitrate (a major ingredient in making fertilizer) with an alternate non-lethal chemical since calcium ammonium nitrate is an explosive material when separated from fertilizer. The Fatima fertilizer and Pak Arab fertilizer companies produce like 6000,000 tons of CAN that is enough to make for about 20 million explosives.

In 1995, CAN was used to explode a government building in Oklahoma that caused 168 casualties, and also in the Bali bombing in 2002.

 America had found the way of this substance from Pakistan to Afghanistan through smuggling and has been using it in making homemade explosives. Fatima group resolved this issue by making fertilizer with an alternate chemical compound that cannot be utilized in making bombs.

2-Neuro-chip:

The first-ever neuro-chip was invented by a Pakistani – Canadian scientist Naveed Syed in 2016. He succeeded in connecting brain cells to a silicon chip. It was the major achievement in connecting computers to humans.

He first used it as a diagnostic device for patients with epilepsy by measuring seizures. Then, this information was wirelessly transmitted to a mobile device.

brain chips
brain chips

The Daily Times also interviewed him in which he said that this discovery can cause prosthetic implant (in prosthetic implant a missing body part is replaced with artificial parts) to work naturally. Further, he said that his lab has also designed a device that can amazingly be connected with brain cells; hence, accomplishing a true bionic hybrid stimulator (a bionic hybrid stimulator provides the doctor with accurate information of the condition of patients i.e. stimulator for heart rate, breath rate, and blood pressure.

3– The Human Development Index:

Next, the human development index was developed for the first time in 1990, by a Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq. Its main purpose was to emphasize government that not only the economic growth, but people and their capabilities should also be the criteria in estimating a country’s growth.

Human Development Index Discovered by Pakistani Scientists
Human Development Index Discovered by Pakistani Scientists

This HDI can be used to question national policies; how two nations with the same GNI (Gross national income) per capita can have different human development results, and after his idea, the working of the whole world can be seen on this concept.

4-Ommaya Reservoir:

Ommaya reservoir, which is a plastic device, was invented by a Pakistani-American neurosurgeon Ayub Khan Ommaya. It is implanted under the scalp to provide medication directly to the cerebrospinal fluid, clear fluid present in the spinal cord and brain, it is significantly used to provide chemotherapy medications to the brain, for the treatment of brain tumors.

Human brain holding Ommaya
Human brain holding Ommaya

Our brain and spinal cord have many blood vessels that form a protective layer called the Blood-Brain barrier and chemotherapy medicines that doctors give through blood are unable to pass through this barrier, but the Ommaya reservoir assists the medicine to surpass this barrier and reach cancer cells.

5-Endotracheal Tube:

The last invention that is going to be discussed is a special shunt called endotracheal tube that was made by doctor Syed Amjad Hussain, a Pakistani-American cardiothoracic surgeon, who invented two surgical devices one is pleuroperitoneal shunt and the other is a special endotracheal tube.

Complete Tube Apparatus
Complete Tube Apparatus

 

An endotracheal tube is flexible, that is placed through the mouth into the trachea then it is connected with the ventilator to provide oxygen to the patients during surgeries and in severe illness (when a person is unable to breathe) to prevent the lungs from contamination.

 

Written By: Fajar Adil Dar

                    Biotechnologist 

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